The most common way to cite sources is to use a bibliography or "Works Cited" list at the end of your paper. The works cited list includes a citation for each of the sources you used to write your paper. The citations are formatted in a consistent style according to one of several standard citation formats. The two most common citation formats for college research papers are: (1) The APA Publication Manual (American Psychological Association) - predominately used in Social Sciences and (2) The MLA Handbook (Modern Language Association) - predominately used in Humanities and Liberal Arts. A third citation format is CMS Handbook (Chicago Manual of Style) and is used primarily in History, but also in Humanities and Social Sciences. Copies of the MLA Handbook (LB 2369 M52 2021), the APA Manual (BF76.7 .P83 2020), and the CMS Handbook (Z253 .U69 2017) are available in the Library stacks and the reference collection. Assistance with writing your paper is available at the VVC Writing Center. Always check with your instructor for the required citation format.
Source: American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
The APA (American Psychological Association) style is most widely used for college research papers in the social and behavioral sciences. There are two parts to creating a citation in the APA format. The first part consists of an "In-text citation" noting the author's name and page number in parentheses for each source used in writing your paper. The second part is a “References” list at the end of the paper that includes a citation for each source used in the in-text citations. The citations are arranged in alphabetical order and written in a standardized format for both print and online sources.
Caution: Depending on the screen size of your computer or device, the formatting in the examples may not display correctly. Note that all citations should be double-spaced and indented five spaces after the first line.
***Be careful to distinguish italicized sections in citations***
Book by one author without DOI [APA 10.02.02]
Pisani, E. (2008). The wisdom of whores: Bureaucrats, brothels, and the business of AIDS. W.W. Norton & Co.
Book by two authors [APA 10.02]
Winchester, S., & Vannithone, S. (2001). The map that changed the world: William Smith
and the birth of modern geology. Harper Collins.
Book with an editor [APA 10.23]
Koeber, C., & MacLeod, K.G. (Eds.). (2002). Catastrophic events and mass extinctions:
Impacts and beyond. Geological Society of America.
Book by an organization or corporate author with a DOI [APA 10.02.20]
American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American
Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000
*When the same organization is listed as the author and the publisher, omit the publisher name.
Article in a reference book [APA 10.03.45]
DeGange, G. A. (1997). Sensory patterns in infants and young children: Introduction
and infancy. In S. Greenspan, S. Wielder, & J. Osofsky (Eds.), Handbook of
adolescent psychiatry (Vol. 1, pp. 43-54). John Wiley.
Chapter in a book [APA 10.03.45]
Schultz, M. (1997). Microscopic investigation of excavated skeletal remains: A contribution to
paleopathology and forensic medicine. In W. D. Haglund & M. H. Sorg (Eds.), Forensic
taphonomy (pp. 201-222). CRC Press.
Magazine article [APA 10.1.15]
Goldstein, J. (2009, October). The new rules for looking younger. Health, 23(8), 40-42.
Scholarly journal article (continuous pagination) [APA 10.01.03]
Kranioti, E. F., & Michalodimitrakis, M. (2009). Sexual dimorphism of the humerus in
contemporary cretans—a population-specific study and a review of the literature.
Journal of Forensic Sciences, 54, 996-1000.
Scholarly journal article (each issue in vol. starts with page 1) [APA 10.01.03.]
Persson, D. I., & Ostwald, S. K. (2009). Younger residents in nursing homes. Journal of
Gerontological Nursing, 35(10), 22-31.
Article from the "Taking Sides" series [APA 10.02.39]
Kuczewski, M., & McCruden, P. J. (2008). Informed consent: Does it take a village? The
problem of culture and truth telling. In C. Levine (Ed.), Taking sides: Clashing views on
bioethical issues (12th ed., pp. 34-41). McGraw-Hill.
Newspaper article [APA 10.01.03]
Byrd, R. (2008, April 6). Students take their science lessons outside. Daily Press, pp. A1, A6.
Citing Online Articles in APA
Since online materials can potentially change URL's, APA recommends providing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), when it is available. DOI's are an attempt to provide stable links for online articles. They are unique to their documents and consist of a long alphanumeric code. Do not include database information for works obtained from most academic research databases or platforms because works in these resources are widely available. This includes journal articles, books, and book chapters from academic research databases. (9.34 page 299) Students should check with their instructor regarding citation requirements and formats.
Magazine article from an online database - Academic Search Complete [APA 10.01.03]
Shah, N. (2012, May 23). Teenage birthrates. Education Week, 31(32), 5.
Scholarly journal article from an online database (volume with continuous pagination and DOI) Academic Search Complete [APA 10.01.01]
Fischer-Betz, R., Specker, C., Brinks, R., & Schneider, M. (2012). Pregnancy outcome in patients
with antiphospholipid syndrome after cerebral ischaemic events: an observational study.
Lupus, 21, 1183-1189. doi:10.1177/0961203312451335
Scholarly journal article from an online database (each issue in volume starts with page 1 and no DOI) Academic Search Complete [APA 10.01.03]
Mohammad, M., & Mohammad, H. (2012). Computer integration into the early childhood curriculum.
Education, 133(1), 97-116.
Newspaper article online database - Newspaper Source Plus (no DOI) [APA 10.01.03]
Gelston, D. (2021, May 16). Larson repays school with Zoom visit. The Washington Post.
Article from an online database - CQ Researcher [APA 9.30 & APA 10.01.02]
Billitteri, T. (2009, October 16). Human spaceflight: Are missions to the moon and Mars
feasible? CQ Researcher, 19(36), 861-884.
Electronic Book Citation: eBook Collection (EBSCOHost) [APA 10.02.21]
Black, B., & Weisel, G.J. (2010). Global warming. Greenwood.
Book chapter from an online database - Opposing Viewpoints in Content [APA 10.03.39]
Paluzzi, P., & Kahn, A. (2009). Abuse in childhood impacts the sexual, reproductive, and
parenting behaviors of young men. In H. Williams (Ed.), Opposing viewpoints: Child
Article from an online encyclopedia [APA 10.03.48]
Guignon, C. B. (2004). Existentialism. In E. Craig (Ed.), Routledge encyclopedia of philosophy.
Online scholarly journal article with DOI (Digital Object Identifier) [APA 10.01.01]
Johnson, C. P., Myers, S.M., & Council on Children with Disabilities. (2007). Identification and
evaluation of children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 120, 1183-1215.
Online magazine article [APA 10.01.15]
Barrett, J. (2007, December 5). The price of childhood obesity. Newsweek.
Online Government or corporate website [APA 10.04.50]
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Skin cancer prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/skin/basic_info/prevention.htm
Online source - No date on source [APA 10.16.113]
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (n.d.). Climate observation and monitoring.
Online source - Sponsored by institution or university [APA 10.16.112]
Riddle, L. (2009, April 29). Biographies of women mathematicians.
How Can You Avoid Plagiarism?
To avoid plagiarism you need to recognize when credit is due. Types of plagiarism include direct copying, paraphrasing, and using another person's idea, opinion, or theory. Take a look at the table below:
Examples of Plagiarism
Example One: Paraphrasing from the original source
Example Two: Quoting from the original source
Note: VVC Students should be aware that plagiarism violates the proscribed student conduct code and may result in possible consequences as stated in the VVC Student Handbook (p.38 D).