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Citing MLA & APA: Citing APA


Citing Sources: APA Style Manual

APA ManualSource: American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

The APA (American Psychological Association) style is most widely used for college research papers in the social and behavioral sciences. There are two parts to creating a citation in the APA format. The first part consists of an "In-text citation" noting the author's name and page number in parentheses for each source used in writing your paper. The second part is a “References” list at the end of the paper that includes a citation for each source used in the in-text citations. The citations are arranged in alphabetical order and written in a standardized format for both print and online sources.

  • Additional information regarding why and when to cite sources can be found under "Understanding Plagiarism." The VVC Writing Center is also available to assist you with questions relating to writing papers, essays, and more.
  • Check out the APA style website for additional guidance. 
  • The examples listed below were created by VVC librarians and are based on the 6th ed. of the APA Manual. These examples represent some of the most often used resources found in the VVC library. For further examples, please refer to copies of the manual located in the library stacks and reference collection (BF76.7 .P83 2010).

Citing Print Sources
  |  Citing Online Sources

Citing Print Sources - APA Style

Caution: Depending on the screen size of your computer or device, the formatting in the examples may not display correctly. Note that all citations should be double-spaced and indented five spaces after the first line.

***Be careful to distinguish italicized sections in citations***


Book by one author  [APA 7.02.18]

Pisani, E. (2008). The wisdom of whores: Bureaucrats, brothels, and the business of AIDS.

New York, NY: W.W. Norton.

Book by two authors  [APA 7.02.18]

Winchester, S., & Vannithone, S. (2001). The map that changed the world: William Smith

and the birth of modern geology. New York, NY: Harper Collins.

 Book with an editor  [APA 7.02]

Koeber, C., & MacLeod, K.G. (Eds.). (2002). Catastrophic events and mass extinctions:

 Impacts and beyond. Boulder, CO: Geological Society of America.

Book by an organization or corporate author  [APA 7.02 - 7.03]

American Psychological Association. (2007). APA dictionary of psychology.

 Washington, DC: Author.

 Article in a reference book  [APA 7.02.25]

DeGange, G. A. (1997). Sensory patterns in infants and young children: Introduction

and infancy. In S. Greenspan, S. Wielder, & J. Osofsky (Eds.), Handbook of

adolescent psychiatry (Vol. 1, pp. 43-54). New York, NY: John Wiley.

Chapter in a book  [APA 7.02.25]

Schultz, M. (1997). Microscopic investigation of  excavated skeletal remains: A contribution to

 paleopathology and forensic medicine. In W. D. Haglund & M. H. Sorg (Eds.), Forensic

taphonomy (pp. 201-222). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Magazine article  [APA 7.01.7]

Goldstein, J. (2009, October). The new rules for looking younger. Health, 23(8), 40-42.

Scholarly journal article (continuous pagination)  [APA 7.01.3]

Kranioti, E. F., & Michalodimitrakis, M. (2009). Sexual dimorphism of the humerus in

contemporary cretans—a population-specific study and a review of the literature.

Journal of Forensic Sciences, 54, 996-1000.

Scholarly journal article (each issue in vol. starts with page 1)  [APA 7.01.3]

Persson, D. I., & Ostwald, S. K. (2009). Younger residents in nursing homes. Journal of 

Gerontological Nursing, 35(10), 22-31.

 Article from the "Taking Sides" series  [APA 7.02.25]

Kuczewski, M., & McCruden, P. J. (2008). Informed consent: Does it take a village? The

problem of culture and truth telling. In C. Levine (Ed.), Taking sides: Clashing views on

bioethical issues (12th ed., pp. 34-41). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.

 Newspaper article  [APA 7.01.10]

Byrd, R. (2008, April 6). Students take their science lessons outside. Daily Press, pp. A1, A6.

Citing Online Sources - APA Style

Citing Online Articles in APA

 Since online materials can potentially change URL's, APA recommends providing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), when it is available. DOI's are an attempt to provide stable links for online articles. They are unique to their documents and consist of a long alphanumeric code. APA states this it is not necessary to include the database in a citation because databases change over time (p. 192). However, some of VVC's database subscriptions use URLs that do not identify the name of the database, so we include the database in these examples. Students should check with their instructor regarding citation requirements and formats.

  • Use the DOI number when provided for sources found on the Internet.
    Example:  doi:10.1542/peds.2007-2361

  • Use the database name for articles found in VVC Library Databases.
    Example: Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.

  • Use the URL for articles without a DOI and all other Internet sources.
    Example: Retrieved from


 Magazine article from an online database - Academic Search Complete  [APA 7.01.08]

Shah, N. (2012, May 23). Teenage birthrates. Education Week, 31(32), 5. Retrieved from

Academic Search Complete database.

Scholarly journal article from an online database (volume with continuous pagination and DOI) Academic Search Complete [APA 7.01.01]

Fischer-Betz, R., Specker, C., Brinks, R., & Schneider, M. (2012). Pregnancy outcome in patients

with antiphospholipid syndrome after cerebral ischaemic events: an observational study.

Lupus, 21, 1183-1189. doi:10.1177/0961203312451335

Scholarly journal article from an online database (each issue in volume starts with page 1 and no DOI) Academic Search Complete [APA 7.01.03]

Mohammad, M., & Mohammad, H. (2012). Computer integration into the early childhood curriculum.

Education, 133(1), 97-116. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.

Newspaper article online database - Newspaper Source Plus and LexisNexis Academic [APA 7.01.11]

Olsen, S. (2010, June 10). When to buy your child a cell phone. New York Times, p. 6. Retrieved

from Newspaper Source Plus database.


Krueger, C. (2008, March 10). Alzheimer’s, Down’s link sheds light. St. Petersburg Times

(Florida), p. 1B. Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic database.

Article from an online database - CQ Researcher  [APA 7.01.01]

Billitteri, T. (2009, October 16). Human spaceflight: Are missions to the moon and Mars

feasible? CQ Researcher, 19(36), 861-884. Retrieved from CQ Researcher database.

 Electronic Book Citation: eBook Collection (EBSCOHost)  [APA 7.02.20]

Black, B., & Weisel, G.J. (2010). Global warming. Retrieved from eBook Collection (EBSCOHost)


Book chapter from an online database - Opposing Viewpoints in Content  [APA 7.02]

Paluzzi, P., & Kahn, A. (2009). Abuse in childhood impacts the sexual, reproductive, and

parenting behaviors of young men. In H. Williams (Ed.), Opposing viewpoints: Child

abuse. Retrieved from Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center database.

Article from an online encyclopedia  [APA 7.02.29]

Guignon, C. B. (2004). Existentialism. In E. Craig (Ed.), Routledge encyclopedia of philosophy.

Retrieved from Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy database.

Internet source - Online scholarly journal article with DOI (Digital Object Identifier)  [APA 7.01.01]

Johnson, C. P., Myers, S.M., & Council on Children with Disabilities. (2007). Identification and

evaluation of children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 120, 1183-1215.


Internet source - Online magazine article  [APA 7.01.08]

Barrett, J. (2007, December 5). The price of childhood obesity. Newsweek. Retrieved


Internet source - Government or corporate report  [APA 7.01.31]

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Skin cancer prevention. Retrieved


Internet source - No date on source  [APA 7.03.34]

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (n.d.). Climate observation and monitoring.

Retrieved from

 Internet source - Sponsored by institution or university  [APA 7.03.34]

Riddle, L. (2009, April 29). Biographies of women mathematicians. Retrieved from Agnes

College website: