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Citing MLA & APA: Citing MLA 8th


MLA Introduction

MLA HandbookSource: MLA Handbook. 8th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2016.  

The MLA 8 style states that the following elements should be used in the order indicated (see right) for creating a citation for all types of sources. When citing sources, the new style organizes elements 1 – 9 in the order. Notice the punctuation marks indicated for each element. Basic commas and periods should follow each element accordingly. The use of the term “container” refers to the larger whole where the source is found, such as an article located in a magazine. 

The examples listed below were created by VVC librarians and are based on the 8th ed. of the MLA Handbook. These examples represent some of the most often used resources found in the VVC library. For further examples, please refer to copies of the handbook located in the library stacks and reference collection (LB2369 .G53 2016).

Example of print book citation using core elements:


Citing Print Sources
  |  Citing Online Sources

Examples: Ctiing Print Sources

Caution: Depending on the screen size of your computer or device, the formatting in the examples may not display correctly. Note that all citations should be double-spaced and indented five spaces after the first line.

***Be careful to distinguish italicized sections in citations***

Book by one author  

Greenfield, Susan. Mind Change: How Digital Technologies Are Leaving Their Mark on Our Brains. Random House, 2015.

Book by two authors 

Haugen, David M., and Susan Musser. Media Violence. Greenhaven P, 2009.

Book by an organization or corporate author  

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5. 5th ed., American Psychiatric Association, 2013.

Article in a reference book  

Richardson, James T. "New Religious Movements and the Law." Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America, edited by Eugene Gallagher and W. Michael Ashcraft, vol. 1, Greenwood P, 2006, pp. 65-83.

Book with an editor  

Eastin, Matthew S., editor. Encyclopedia of Media Violence. Sage Publications, 2013.

Work in an anthology  

Park, Ruth. “Playing Beatie Bow.” Norton Anthology of Children’s Literature, edited by Jack Zipes, et al., W.W. Norton, 2005, pp. 699-794.

Article from a Periodical (Magazine)  

Specter, Michael. "DNA Revolution." National Geographic, vol. 230, no. 2, Aug. 2016, pp. 30-55.

 Article from a scholarly journal 

Howland, Robert H. "Oxazepam for the Treatment of Substance Abuse and Depression." Journal of Psychosocial Nursing Mental Health Services, vol. 54, no. 5, May 2016, pp. 21-24.

Article from "Taking Sides"  (3 or More Authors)

Williams, Kaylene, et al. "Product Placement Effectiveness: Revisited and Renewed."Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Media and Society, edited by Alison Alexander and Jarice Hanson, McGraw-Hill, 2014, pp. 91-96.

Entry from the "Gale Literary" Publications (Literary Criticism Reprinted from a Book)

Hedrick, Joan D. "Journeying Across the Ghostly Wastes of a Dead World." Solitary Comrade: Jack London and His Work, U of North Carolina P, 1982. Short Story Criticism, edited by Justin Karr, vol. 49, Gale, 2002, pp. 340-43.

 Newspaper article 

Trottman, Melanie, and Brody Mullins. “Labor Fears Partisan Defections.” The Wall Street Journal, 2 June 2016, p. A4.

Examples: Citing Online Sources

Online Sources

Note:  MLA recommends including the web address or URL for online sources (do not include the http://).  Databases or web sites may offer “permalinks” which are stable URLs.  Use a DOI (digital object identifier) when available in a database.  MLA recommends including the date of access if the source does not have a publication date.  Check with your instructor about the need to include web addresses and/or access dates.


Periodical (Magazine) article from an online database - Academic Search Complete

Knopf, Alison. "Incarcerated Children More Likely to Have Experienced Trauma." Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly, vol. 28, no. 13, 28 Mar. 2016, pp. 3-4. Academic Search Complete,

Scholarly Journal article from an online database - Academic Search Complete

Pinsof, David, and Martie Haselton. "The Political Divide Over Same-Sex Marriage." Psychological Science, vol. 27, no. 4, Apr. 2016, pp. 435-42. Academic Search Complete,

Newspaper article from an online database - Newspaper Source Plus and LexisNexis Academic

Kepner, Tyler.  “Bryant Turns Back the Clock, Then Exits.”  New York Times, 15 Apr. 2016, p. B12.  Newspaper Source Plus,


Svrluga, Susan. “George Mason Law School Officially Renamed in Honor of Antonin Scalia.” The Washington Post, 18 May 2016, p. B8. Lexis Nexis Academic , lnacui2api/api/version1/getDocCui?lni=5JT4-NS51-DXXY31XX&csi=270944,270077,110 59,8411&hl=t&hv=t&hnsd=f&hns=t&hgn=t&oc=00240&perma=true.

Online Database- Opposing Viewpoints in Content (Article Reprinted from a Magazine and a Topic Overview)

Edelman, Peter. "The State of Poverty in America." American Prospect, vol. 6, no. 23, 22 June 2012. Opposing Viewpoints in Context,


“Minimum Wage.”  Opposing Viewpoints Online Collection, Gale, 2015. Opposing Viewpoints in Context,

Article from an Online Database – CQ Researcher

Wanlund, William. "Modernizing the Nuclear Arsenal." CQ Researcher, vol. 26, no. 27, 29 July 2016, pp. 625-48. CQ Researcher,

Article from an Online Database – Literature Resource Center (Literary Criticism Reprinted from a Book and a Magazine)

Henthorne, Tom. "Dystopia with a Difference: The Lessons of Panem and District 13." Approaching the Hunger Games Trilogy, McFarland, 2012, pp. 108-24. Literature Resource Center ,

Maio, Kathi.  “Girl Power in Dystopia.”  The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, vol. 127, nos. 1-2, July-Aug. 2014, p. 199. Literature Resource Center , 

Article from an Online Encyclopedia (Source with DOI and source with URL)

Strawson, Galen. “Free Will.” Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2011, doi:10.4324/9780415249126-V014-2.


"Japan Earthquake and Tsunami of 2011".  Encyclopedia Britannica Online, 2016,

Electronic/Digital Book Citation—EBSCOhost E-Books

Harrold, Stanley. Border War: Fighting Over Slavery Before the Civil War. U of North Carolina P, 2010. EBSCOhost E-book, =343662&site=ehost-live.

Internet Source – Special Collection or Scholarly Project (No Publication Date on Source, Includes Access Date)

By Popular Demand: Jackie Robinson and Other Baseball Highlights, 1860s-1960s.” Library of Congress, Accessed 9 June 2016.

Internet source - Document from professional site or information database

“Cancer Alternative Therapies.” MedlinePlus, United States National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 7 June 2016,

Posting of an Article at a Website-Blog

Smith, Dakota. “Election 2016 Round-up: Rematches, Rivalries, and Big Money.” The Sausage Factory, Los Angeles Daily News, 8 June 2016,

Internet source - Article from a news service

Chrisafis, Angelique. “‘France is Not in Chaos’: PM Manuel Valls Says Labor Reforms Must Go Ahead.” Guardian, 2 June 2016,

Internet Source – Video from YouTube

D’Annunzio, Melissa Huseman.  “The Punishable Perils of Plagiarism.”  YouTube, TED-Ed, 14 June 2013,

Core Elements For Citing MLA