MLA (9th ed.) style requires the use of parentheses (in-text citations) to cite sources rather than footnotes or endnotes. Use the following guidelines when applying in-text citations:
[Refer to MLA Handbook pages 227-230 and 231-286 for further details and examples].
In-text Citation Examples
As had been the case with Dada nearly sixty years earlier, "the instigators of the revolutionary avant-garde in music comprised a tiny number of people" (Bracewell 242).
[In this example, both author's name and page number are placed in parentheses.]
According to Bracewell, "the instigators of the revolutionary avant-garde in music comprised a tiny number of people" (242).
[In this example, the author’s name is used in the text, so only the page number is placed in parentheses.]
Roxy Music’s style has been described as artistic rock that combined “wistful romantic irony with initially archaic and later subdued, lush rock” (“Roxy” 855).
[In this example, there is no author and the title of the article “Roxy Music” is shortened to “Roxy” and followed by the page number.]
"Many of the best from the new crop of arty pop bands from that era owed a lot to Roxy's earlier incarnations, from the playfully quirky theatrical apparel to the emotionally detached, affected cool of some of their best music" (Clark).
[In this example, the quote is taken from a Web site without a page number designation and the author's name is included in parenthesis.]
Bracewell, Michael. Re-make, Re-model: Becoming Roxy Music.
Clark, Rick. "Roxy Music's Avalon." Mix. Penton Media, 6 Jan. 2004,
“Roxy Music.” New Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll.
edited by Patricia Romanowski and Holly George-Warren,