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Citing MLA & APA: In-Text Citation & Works Cited: MLA 9th


In-text Citations: MLA

MLA (9th ed.) style requires the use of parentheses (in-text citations) to cite sources rather than footnotes or endnotes. Use the following guidelines when applying in-text citations: 

  • To cite a source, include the author’s last name and the specific page number where the information was found in parenthesis after the quote or paraphrase (see Example 1).
  • Include the author’s name in the text of your paper and cite the page number in parenthesis (see Example 2).
  • To cite a source that does not have an author, include the first word or words of the title of the work and page number in parenthesis (see Example 3).
  • To cite a Web site or a source that does not have a page number, include the author's name in the text or at the end of the quote in parenthesis (see Example 4).

[Refer to MLA Handbook pages 227-230 and 231-286 for further details and examples].


In-text Citation Examples

Example 1

As had been the case with Dada nearly sixty years earlier, "the instigators of the revolutionary avant-garde in music comprised a tiny number of people" (Bracewell 242).

[In this example, both author's name and page number are placed in parentheses.]

Example 2

According to Bracewell, "the instigators of the revolutionary avant-garde in music comprised a tiny number of people" (242).

[In this example, the author’s name is used in the text, so only the page number is placed in parentheses.]

Example 3

Roxy Music’s style has been described as artistic rock that combined “wistful romantic irony with initially archaic and later subdued, lush rock” (“Roxy” 855).

[In this example, there is no author and the title of the article “Roxy Music” is shortened to “Roxy” and followed by the page number.]

Example 4

"Many of the best from the new crop of arty pop bands from that era owed a lot to Roxy's earlier incarnations, from the playfully quirky theatrical apparel to the emotionally detached, affected cool of some of their best music" (Clark).

[In this example, the quote is taken from a Web site without a page number designation and the author's name is included in parenthesis.]

Works Cited: MLA

In the "In-text Citation" examples, the author’s last name or brief title included in parentheses corresponds with the names and titles listed alphabetically on the “Works Cited” page. This format enables the reader to quickly identify the source and access the same materials when necessary.


Works Cited 

Bracewell, Michael. Re-make, Re-model: Becoming Roxy Music.

DaCapo, 2008.

Clark, Rick. "Roxy Music's Avalon." Mix. Penton Media, 6 Jan. 2004,


“Roxy Music.” New Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll.

edited by Patricia Romanowski and Holly George-Warren,