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Philosophy & Religion Research Guide

Citing Sources: APA Style Manual

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).

The APA (American Psychological Association) style is most widely used for college research papers in the social and behavioral sciences. There are two parts to creating a citation in the APA format. The first part consists of an "In-text citation" noting the author's name and page number in parentheses for each source used in writing your paper. The second part is a “References” list at the end of the paper that includes a citation for each source used in the in-text citations. The citations are arranged in alphabetical order and written in a standardized format for both print and online sources. The APA manual is located in the library stacks and reference collection (BF76.7 .P83 2020).

Check out the APA Style website for citation guidance: 

Citing Print Sources: APA Style

Caution: Depending on the screen size of your computer or device, the formatting in the examples may not display correctly. Note that all citations should be double-spaced and indented five spaces after the first line.

***Be careful to distinguish italicized sections in citations***


Book by one author  

Pisani, E. (2008). The wisdom of whores: Bureaucrats, brothels, and the business of AIDS.

W.W. Norton.

Book by two authors  

Winchester, S., & Vannithone, S. (2001). The map that changed the world: William Smith

and the birth of modern geology. Harper Collins.

 Book with an editor  

Koeber, C., & MacLeod, K.G. (Eds.). (2002). Catastrophic events and mass extinctions:

 Impacts and beyond. Geological Society of America.

Book by an organization or corporate author with a DOI 

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American

            Psychological Association (7th ed.).

*When the same organization is listed as the author and the publisher, omit the publisher name.

 Article in a reference book  

DeGange, G. A. (1997). Sensory patterns in infants and young children: Introduction

and infancy. In S. Greenspan, S. Wielder, & J. Osofsky (Eds.), Handbook of

adolescent psychiatry: Vol. 1. Infancy and preschoolers: Development and

syndromes (pp. 43-54). John Wiley.

Chapter in a book  

Schultz, M. (1997). Microscopic investigation of  excavated skeletal remains: A contribution to

 paleopathology and forensic medicine. In W. D. Haglund & M. H. Sorg (Eds.), Forensic

taphonomy (pp. 201-222). CRC Press.

Magazine article  

Goldstein, J. (2009, October). The new rules for looking younger. Health, 23(8), 40-42.

Scholarly journal article (continuous pagination)  

Kranioti, E. F., & Michalodimitrakis, M. (2009). Sexual dimorphism of the humerus in

contemporary cretans—a population-specific study and a review of the literature.

Journal of Forensic Sciences, 54, 996-1000. 

Scholarly journal article (each issue in vol. starts with page 1)  

Persson, D. I., & Ostwald, S. K. (2009). Younger residents in nursing homes. Journal of 

Gerontological Nursing, 35(10), 22-31.

 Article from the "Taking Sides" series  

Kuczewski, M., & McCruden, P. J. (2008). Informed consent: Does it take a village? The

problem of culture and truth telling. In C. Levine (Ed.), Taking sides: Clashing views on

bioethical issues (12th ed., pp. 34-41). McGraw-Hill.

 Newspaper article  

Byrd, R. (2008, April 6). Students take their science lessons outside. Daily Press, pp. A1, A6.

Citing Online Sources: APA Style

Citing Online Articles in APA

 Since online materials can potentially change URL's, APA recommends providing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), when it is available. DOI's are an attempt to provide stable links for online articles. They are unique to their documents and consist of a long alphanumeric code. APA states this it is not necessary to include the database in a citation because databases change over time (p. 296). However, some of VVC's database subscriptions use URLs that do not identify the name of the database, so we include the database in these examples. Students should check with their instructor regarding citation requirements and formats.

  • Use the DOI number when provided for sources found on the Internet.
    Example:  doi:10.1542/peds.2007-2361
  • Use the URL for articles without a DOI and all other Internet sources.


 Magazine article from an online database - Academic Search Complete  

Shah, N. (2012, May 23). Teenage birthrates. Education Week, 31(32), 5. 

Scholarly journal article from an online database (volume with continuous pagination and DOI) Academic Search Complete 

Fischer-Betz, R., Specker, C., Brinks, R., & Schneider, M. (2012). Pregnancy outcome in patients

with antiphospholipid syndrome after cerebral ischaemic events: An observational study.

Lupus, 21, 1183-1189.

Scholarly journal article from an online database (each issue in volume starts with page 1 and no DOI) Academic Search Complete 

Mohammad, M., & Mohammad, H. (2012). Computer integration into the early childhood curriculum.

Education, 133(1), 97-116.

Newspaper article online database - Newspaper Source Plus (no DOI) 

Gelston, D. (2021, May 16). Larson repays school with Zoom visit. The Washington Post. 

Article from an online database - CQ Researcher  

Billitteri, T. (2009, October 16). Human spaceflight: Are missions to the moon and Mars

feasible? CQ Researcher, 19(36), 861-884. CQ Researcher.

 Electronic Book Citation: eBook Collection (EBSCOHost)  

Black, B., & Weisel, G.J. (2010). Global warming. Greenwood. 

Book chapter from an online database - Opposing Viewpoints in Content  

Paluzzi, P., & Kahn, A. (2009). Abuse in childhood impacts the sexual, reproductive, and

parenting behaviors of young men. In H. Williams (Ed.), Opposing viewpoints: Child

abuse. Greenhaven Press. 

Article from an online encyclopedia  

Graham, G. (2019). Behaviorism. In E.N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Summer 2019 ed.). Stanford               University.


Internet source - Online scholarly journal article with DOI (Digital Object Identifier)  

Johnson, C. P., Myers, S.M., & Council on Children with Disabilities. (2007). Identification and

evaluation of children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 120, 1183-1215.

Internet source - Online magazine article  

Barrett, J. (2007, December 5). The price of childhood obesity. Newsweek

Internet source - Government or corporate report  

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Skin cancer prevention

Internet source - No date on source  

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (n.d.). Climate observation and monitoring.

 Internet source - Sponsored by institution or university  

Riddle, L. (2009, April 29). Biographies of women mathematicians. Agnes College.