The Writing Center
Guide for 7th edition
Source: American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000
The APA (American Psychological Association) style is most widely used for college research papers in the social and behavioral sciences. There are two parts to creating a citation in the APA format. The first part consists of an "In-text citation" noting the author's name and page number in parentheses for each source used in writing your paper. The second part is a “References” list at the end of the paper that includes a citation for each source used in the in-text citations. The citations are arranged in alphabetical order and written in a standardized format for both print and online sources.
Citing Print Sources | Citing Online Sources
Caution: Depending on the screen size of your computer or device, the formatting in the examples may not display correctly. Note that all citations should be double-spaced and indented five spaces after the first line.
***Be careful to distinguish italicized sections in citations***
Book by one author
Pisani, E. (2008). The wisdom of whores: Bureaucrats, brothels, and the business of AIDS.
Book by two authors
Winchester, S., & Vannithone, S. (2001). The map that changed the world: William Smith
and the birth of modern geology. Harper Collins.
Book with an editor
Koeber, C., & MacLeod, K.G. (Eds.). (2002). Catastrophic events and mass extinctions:
Impacts and beyond. Geological Society of America.
Book by an organization or corporate author with a DOI
American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American
Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000
*When the same organization is listed as the author and the publisher, omit the publisher name.
Article in a reference book
DeGange, G. A. (1997). Sensory patterns in infants and young children: Introduction
and infancy. In S. Greenspan, S. Wielder, & J. Osofsky (Eds.), Handbook of
adolescent psychiatry: Vol. 1. Infancy and preschoolers: Development and
syndromes (pp. 43-54). John Wiley.
Chapter in a book
Schultz, M. (1997). Microscopic investigation of excavated skeletal remains: A contribution to
paleopathology and forensic medicine. In W. D. Haglund & M. H. Sorg (Eds.), Forensic
taphonomy (pp. 201-222). CRC Press.
Goldstein, J. (2009, October). The new rules for looking younger. Health, 23(8), 40-42.
Scholarly journal article (continuous pagination)
Kranioti, E. F., & Michalodimitrakis, M. (2009). Sexual dimorphism of the humerus in
contemporary cretans—a population-specific study and a review of the literature.
Journal of Forensic Sciences, 54, 996-1000.
Scholarly journal article (each issue in vol. starts with page 1)
Persson, D. I., & Ostwald, S. K. (2009). Younger residents in nursing homes. Journal of
Gerontological Nursing, 35(10), 22-31.
Article from the "Taking Sides" series
Kuczewski, M., & McCruden, P. J. (2008). Informed consent: Does it take a village? The
problem of culture and truth telling. In C. Levine (Ed.), Taking sides: Clashing views on
bioethical issues (12th ed., pp. 34-41). McGraw-Hill.
Byrd, R. (2008, April 6). Students take their science lessons outside. Daily Press, pp. A1, A6.
Citing Online Articles in APA
Since online materials can potentially change URL's, APA recommends providing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), when it is available. DOI's are an attempt to provide stable links for online articles. They are unique to their documents and consist of a long alphanumeric code. APA states this it is not necessary to include the database in a citation because databases change over time (p. 296). However, some of VVC's database subscriptions use URLs that do not identify the name of the database, so we include the database in these examples. Students should check with their instructor regarding citation requirements and formats.
Magazine article from an online database - Academic Search Complete
Shah, N. (2012, May 23). Teenage birthrates. Education Week, 31(32), 5.
Scholarly journal article from an online database (volume with continuous pagination and DOI) Academic Search Complete
Fischer-Betz, R., Specker, C., Brinks, R., & Schneider, M. (2012). Pregnancy outcome in patients
with antiphospholipid syndrome after cerebral ischaemic events: An observational study.
Lupus, 21, 1183-1189. https://doi.org/10.1177/0961203312451335
Scholarly journal article from an online database (each issue in volume starts with page 1 and no DOI) Academic Search Complete
Mohammad, M., & Mohammad, H. (2012). Computer integration into the early childhood curriculum.
Education, 133(1), 97-116.
Newspaper article online database - Newspaper Source Plus (no DOI)
Gelston, D. (2021, May 16). Larson repays school with Zoom visit. The Washington Post.
Article from an online database - CQ Researcher
Billitteri, T. (2009, October 16). Human spaceflight: Are missions to the moon and Mars
feasible? CQ Researcher, 19(36), 861-884. CQ Researcher. http://library.cqpress.com/
Electronic Book Citation: eBook Collection (EBSCOHost)
Black, B., & Weisel, G.J. (2010). Global warming. Greenwood.
Book chapter from an online database - Opposing Viewpoints in Content
Paluzzi, P., & Kahn, A. (2009). Abuse in childhood impacts the sexual, reproductive, and
parenting behaviors of young men. In H. Williams (Ed.), Opposing viewpoints: Child
abuse. Greenhaven Press.
Article from an online encyclopedia
Graham, G. (2019). Behaviorism. In E.N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Summer 2019 ed.). Stanford University. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2019/entries/behaviorism/
Internet source - Online scholarly journal article with DOI (Digital Object Identifier)
Johnson, C. P., Myers, S.M., & Council on Children with Disabilities. (2007). Identification and
evaluation of children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 120, 1183-1215.
Internet source - Online magazine article
Barrett, J. (2007, December 5). The price of childhood obesity. Newsweek.
Internet source - Government or corporate report
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Skin cancer prevention.
Internet source - No date on source
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (n.d.). Climate observation and monitoring.
Internet source - Sponsored by institution or university
Riddle, L. (2009, April 29). Biographies of women mathematicians. Agnes College.